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Definition for Injury Law

Injury Lawyer Definitions


  • Bipolar Disorder – involves periods of excitability (obsession) shifting with periods of depression. The “mood swings” between mania and depression can be especially abrupt. Symptoms include confusion or exasperation, elevated mood, rash behavior, and an unruly temper.


  • Cardiac Obstructive Pulmonary Disease – refers to persistent bronchitis and emphysema, a pair of generally co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways become narrowed. This leads to a deficiency of the stream of air to and from the lungs creating shortness of breath. In opposition to asthma, the restriction of airflow is inadequately reversible and usually gets progressively more serious over time.


  • Colitis – refers to an infection of the colon and is often used to describe an swelling of the large intestine. Colitis may be severe and self-limited or chronic, i.e., steadfast, and broadly fit into the category of digestive diseases.


  • Concussion – an injury of a soft structure, as the brain, resulting from a blow or violent shaking.


  • Congestive Heart Failure – Is a situation in which the heart can no longer pump sufficient blood to the remainder of the body. Common signs include shortness of breath with exercise, or after lying down for a while, cough, inflammation of feet and ankles, inflammation of the abdomen, weight gain, abnormal or rapid pulse, feeling of sensing the heartbeat (palpitations), trouble sleeping, fatigue, weakness, faintness, lack of appetite, and indigestion.


  • Contre-coup Injury – an affliction was occurring underneath the skull contrary to the area of impact.


  • Coup Injury – an impairment was occurring directly underneath the skull at the area of impact.


  • Crohns Disease – Is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).  IBD affects the intestines typically but may transpire from the aperture to the end of the rectum (anus). Symptoms include obstructing in the abdominal area pain, temperature, fatigue, loss of hunger, pain with passing stool, persistent diarrhea, involuntary weight loss, constipation, eye infection, fistulas (usually around the rectal area, may cause oozing of pus, mucus, or stools), joint discomfort, liver infection, mouth ulcers, rectal bleeding and bloody stools, skin rash, swollen gums.


  • Damages – the number of funds that a plaintiff (the person suing) may be awarded in a trial. There are many types of accidents. Special losses are those who were caused by the Injury and include medical and hospital bills, ambulance charges, loss of wages, property repair or replacement costs, or loss of money due on a contract. The second primary area of damages is general damages, which are considered to be a result of the other party’s doing but are subjective both in nature and determination of the value of costs. These include pain and suffering, future problems and the crippling impact of an injury, loss of ability to complete various acts, reduction of life extent, mental anguish, loss of companionship, loss of reputation (in a libel suit, for example), embarrassment from scars, loss of expected business and other harm. The third main form of damage is exemplary (or punitive) damages, which combines punishment and the setting of public example. 


  • Exemplary damages may be awarded when the defendant acted in a spiteful, violent, oppressive, fraudulent, wanton, or the grossly reckless way in causing the specific and general damages to the plaintiff. On occasion, punitive damages can be costlier than the actual costs, as, for example, in a sexual harassment claim or fraudulent plots. Although often asked for, they are seldom awarded. Nominal values are those given when the actual Injury is minor, and an award is warranted under the facts. Liquidated damages are those pre-set by the participants in a contract to be granted in case one party faults as in breach of contract.



  • Flexion-Extension Injury – Is a forceful subsequent application of a front and rearward movement of the unsupported head that may create an injury to the cervical spine or the brain.


  • Focal Brain Injury – Is an injury that occurs in a precise location of the brain.
  • Hypoxic Brain Injury – results in a decreased supply of oxygen to the brain.


  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease – refers to two persistent diseases that cause infection of the intestines: ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s Disease.


  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome – a functional bowel disease characterized by chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and alteration of bowel habits in the absence of any detectable organic cause. In some cases, the signs are relieved by bowel movements. Diarrhea or constipation may dominate, or they may alternate (classified as IBS-D, IBS-C or IBS-A, respectively). IBS may occur after an infection (post-infectious, IBS-PI), a stressful life experience, or onset of maturity without any other medical signs.


  • Multiple Sclerosis – an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). Signs vary because the area and severity of each illness can be different. Events can last for days, weeks, or months. These events alternate with periods of reduced or no symptoms (remissions)


  • Neuropathy – Is a term for Injury to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by disorders of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic disease.


  • Parkinson’s Disease – Is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system that often diminishes the sufferer’s motor skills, speech, and other functions.


  • Penetration Injury –  Is a brain injury occurring from severe head trauma following a tool has entered the head (i.e., knife, shaft, etc.)


  • Retinopathy – Is a generic term that refers to any form of non-inflammatory Injury to the retina of the eye.


  • Schizophrenia – a mental disorder that makes it hard to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences, to think logically, to have normal emotional responses, and to behave normally in social situations.


  • Skull Fracture – Is a break in one or more of the bones in the skull, usually occurring as a result of dull force injury. If the force of the impact is excessive, the bone may fracture at or near the site of the effect. The force of a direct impact may cause harm to the underlying physical structures enclosed within the skull, such as the membranes, blood vessels, and brain, even in the absence of a fracture.